Homenatge al Dr. En Sebastià Garcia Martínez / 5-6
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III:5/6 (1987), 654 pp.
Manuel Ardit Lucas: Presentation
Josep Juan Vidal: Sebastià Garcia Martínez: A Bio-Biographical approach (Sebastià Garcia Martínez: perfil biobibliogràfic). This article develops the life and historiographical work of Sebastià Garcia Martínez, founder and first director of Afers, who unfortunately died on the 1st June 1986
José M. López Piñero: When Sebastià Garcia Martínez became a historian (Quan Sebastià Garcia Martínez esdevingué historiador) The author, predecessor of the person being honoured as Director of the "Col·legi Major Lluís Vives", designs a biographical sketch from the first years of academic and research work activity of Sebastià Garcia Martínez Jacqueline Guiral: The contribution of the Jewish and Muslim societies to the maritime trade of the 15th Century in València (L'aportació de les comunitats jueva i musulmana al comerç marítim de València al segle XV) The title of this article may come as a surprise; the study of the corsair’s problems, the risk and security from the point of view of the prosperity and the development of the trade relationship of this Mediterranean harbour, could look like a bet, but after all, if we want the piracy to exist, there must be a trade to call the greed of those who are not in the game. The author tries to get out from the traditional cliché that implies a permanent fight between Christians and Muslims, and aslto to show other relationships and not just the conflicting ones
Francesca Aleixandre Tena: Orphans, foundlings and madmen. An approach to the study of marginalization in València during the Modern Age (Orfes, expòsits i orats: aproximació a l'estudi de la marginació a València durant l'Edat Moderna) Hospital files show a vast and greatly varied documentation on a large range of realities of the past. In fact, their information has often been used for various aspects —economic, social, cultural, ideologic, medical, and so on— of studies. The archive in the «Hospital General de València» outstands for its good state of preservation of its bundles of papers, which ofer whole series of documents since 1512 to nowadays. Orphans and madmen's section allows us to follow the development of pioneering charity institution in modern Europe between 1512 and 1964. Xavier Cuartiella Beltran and Xavier Roman i Pérez de la Lastra: Contributions to the study of popular classes in the Modern Age. Barcelona, 16th century (Aportacions per a l'estudi de les classes populars urbanes a l'Època moderna. Barcelona, segle XVI) The authors of this paper advance some conclusions of their researches regarding this issue. Specifically, they study the existence of a certain degree of ideological and cultural homogeneity in the society constituted by the urban popular classes of Barcelona in the 16th century. This is done, firstly, by questioning different theoretical issues that affect the historical analysis of the popular classes during the Modern Age, as for example the conceptions of popular culture, marginality, popular classes...Secondly, they analyze specific issues that can contribute with elements that can make us depen in the knowledge of different levels of internal relationships — economic, ideological, cultural...— that exist within popular classes
Carme Moroder and Carme Valero: Notes on erasmist Bernardo Pérez de Chinchon’s translation of «Historia de las cosas que han passado en Italia», written by Galeazo Flavio Capella (València, 1536) (Notes sobre la traducció de la «Historia de las cosas que han passado en Italia» de Galeazzo Flavio Capella per l'erasmista Bernardo Pérez de Chinchón (València, 1536) Specialists have emphasized the importance of the task of translating and widespreading the work of Erasmus by some members of the so called «grup erasmista valencià». Bernardo Pérez de Chinchón’s activity has been continuously praised by researchers. Nevertheless, his castilian version of De rbus nuper in Italia gestis by the Milanese Gelazzo Flavio Capella, has not received the deserved attention. Historians have, as much, proposed the hypothesis that it appears to be a «circumstancial translation». Our intention is a triple one: pointing out the great success attaaoned by Capella’s chronicle; arguing with a solid basis the hypothesis of a commission or of a political convenience in the election and translation of this history; and analizing the text and «translation strategy» that reveals, once again, Pérez de Chinchón’s liking to use marginal notes expressing his ideas or better focusing the author’s most «dangerous» assertions. We can conclude that the Capiscol of Gandia possibly intended to claim his patriotism during the difficult conjuncture lived at the time by the Erasmism, after the crowning of Bologna; a situation that aggravated as the century went on.
M. Dolors Salvador Lizondo: The repairing of offences in the Parliament of 1542, 1547 and 1552 (La reparació dels greuges a les Corts de 1542, 1547 i 1552) The part of the service of the Parliament of 1542, 1547 and 1552, entitled by Charles I of Spain to mend the offences against the people of València, was used to pay the loans that the King had asked for to finance the War of «Germanies», to end the revolt of Moriscos in the mountains of Espadan, and to pay other debts. Among the creditors of the King were the royal villages, Institutions, noble people, royal officers and other individuals. The distribution was made 10 or 12 years after putting and end to the Parliament, and that shows the high debt of the King, which was higher than the 100,000 pounds that the Kingdom of València should give to each one of the Parliaments.
Magín Arroyas Serrano: The «viratge filipí» in the Valencian Moorish policy, 1554-1564 (El «viratge filipí» en la política sobre els moriscos valencians, 1554-1564) The finding of unknown documents sometimes causes total or partial changes into aspects which were considered clear enough up to that moment. That has happened with what we are dealing with now. Two documents were found and that fact allowed the author of this report to reopen some questions on Philip II of Spain Moorish policies during the period that Professor Reglà named as the «viratge filipí». On the other hand, these documents enabled the author to outline the role played by doctor Fraso, a non-well known character until now.
María Luz López Terrada and José Pardo Tomàs: The «Protomédico» and «Sobrevastidor real» in the 16th century in València (El protomedicato y sobrevisitador real a la València del segle XVI) This work intends to analyze in what manner the Royal Power tried to take part in different matters of control on medical practice and how the Valencian foral institutions refused the intentions of the Royal Crown, that in Castile had achieved its purposes by creating the Tribunal del Protomedicato. Various outstanding figures in the field of medical knowledge renewal in the 16th century Hispanic Monarchy, were nominated as «Protomédico» and «Sobrevastidor real», for all what was related to the art of medicine , surgery and pharmacology of the city and Kingdom of València, an office that had its competence in conflict with the Valencian foral system
Vicent L. Salavert Fabiani: Notes on town public health in València during the 16th and 17th centuries: market and street maintenances within the mostassaf’s competences (Notes sobre la sanitat pública municipal a la València dels segles XVI i XVII: les competències del Mustassaf en matèria de mercats i conservació dels carrers) The «mostassaf» has always been thought as a supervisor of weights and measures in markets, and it has usually been forgotten that his privileges used to include almost all the sections in the urban activities. During the 16th century, regulations underwent an impulse that reached its highest point at a new codification in 1563. This study tries to underline the duties referred to public health safeguard —although this concept might be anachronistic— that also would include the control of trade in town; the survey of markets, that was both to assure the supplies and to avoid frauds in merchandise. He would attend everything referred to prices, weights, measures, quality of the products, state of food, as well as the state of streets themselves, and the prohibition of certain activities that could be dangerous for the citizen’s life. It should be pointed out that he was the workman in charge of avoiding pollution in town, especially the outdoors and filth.
Manuel Ardit Lucas: Moorish expulsion and agrarian growth in the Valencian Country (Expulsió dels moriscos i creixement agrari valencià) An interpretative tendency, which goes back to the 19th century liberal historiography, has traditionally supported the higher agrarian development of the Moorish communities. Although nowadays no scholars support this interpretation so crudely expressed, some of them echo it nuancedly. The author of this article thinks that there is a logical inconsistency between to so-supposed Moorish welfare and their condition of defeated and subordinated minority. Changes in the Valencian spatial patterns of population between 1609 and 1713/ 1787, and mainly the study of the evolution of agrarian output, made on the documentary base of the tithes of the Archbishopric of Valencia, rather inclined to support the opposed interpretation. The Moorish were, at their last times and in general terms, laid aside into the worst of the Valencian territory, while economic dynamism was in hands of Christian communities.
Antoni López Quiles and Vicent S. Olmos i Tamarit: Population instability and economic crisis. Picassent, 17th century (Inestabilitat poblacional i crisi econòmica. Picassent, segle XVII) In this work, the authors study the economic difficulties borne by a Valencian municipality of ancient Moorish population as a consequence of the expulsion of these, and the problems in attaining a steady population able to confront the economic crisis of the time and the subsequent debts contracted by the countrymen and feudal lords of this kind of towns. All this in contrast with a neighbouring municipality, now belonging to ancient Christians who, rather than demanding a new inhabitants in order to consolidate the settlement, segregates the ones that have been depopulated; they analyze also the specific features of both communities in reference to economic problems and the different solutions given to them.
Sebastià Garcia Martínez: Gaudenci Senach and the Valencian Medical Botany Chair. 1682-1694 (Gaudenci Senach i la càtedra valenciana de Botànica Mèdica, 1682-1694) This article is the transcription of the communication that the scholar Sebastià Garcia Martínez presented in the 7th International Congress on History of MEdicine. It took place in Alacant, 1983. A posthumous work where the author analyses the trajectory of Gaudenci Senach, the last doctor who taught Greek in the «Estudi General» of València, who acceded to the chair of this classic language and of «Vespres», from where he reactivated the apathetic life of the Botanical Garden of València. This interest is taken because of the reconstruction of the first known public competition to a chair in the University of València. He was a very important doctor because of his relationship with the renewal of the Medicine in València that took place in the 17th Century. He was also important because of his belonging to the pre-enlightening nucleus, that flourished in València during the 80’s: The Academy that had its point of reunion in Bisbe street.
André Gallego Barnes and Françoise Moune de Muñoz: The «Llibre del Priorat de Teologia» (1600-1700). Contribution to the study of the «General Study» of València (El Llibre del Priorat de Teologia (1600-1700) (Contribució a la Història de l'Estudi General de València) Following their preceding studies, the authors offer us a meticulous analysis of the «Llibre del Priorat de Teologia» that was used during the 17th century in the «General Study» of València. In this book, we can verify the progressive deflection of the theological studies because of the growing laicism of the society and the administration’s demands.
Telesforo-Marcial Hernàndez: «Novatores» and master builders in València: 1675-1740 (Els Novatores i els mestres d'obra de València (1675-1740) This study rises from the fact that a great deal of the cultural legate of the Valencian academic tradition in the 18th century is due to the novatores’ influence. Taking into account the master builder’s scarce theoretical skill, he must have necessarily gained some scientific knowledge outside the corporation in order to able him to face the more and more competitive demands of skillful builders. This new ways of knowledge began to spread between 1675 and 1740. The «novatores» teaching was proved to be essential in this task as well as the publications of some new treaties on architecture that urged to a epistemological remodelling combined with everyday building praxis. Revision of the academic talks, as well as of the main classic and modern treatises, alongside with the main role that foreign craftmen played in València dealing with some specific technical difficulties, all came to show the changes that had been taking place among the corporations craftsmen, and how a minority of craftsmen then felt compelled to abandon the rules of the guilds, for the corporations were more obsolete with regard to the new circumstances of the Enlightenment.
Evarist Caselles Monjo: Pego 1693-1712: social conflict and military repression (De la conflictivitat social a la repressió militar. Pego: 1693-1712) The Barony of Pego is situated in the center of the area with most social conflictivity in the Valencian Country during the end of the 17th century. The contracting of debt by the countrymen due to the growth of taxation and the traditional bandirity, originated an unrest social manifest that would emerge clearly during the second Germania. This situation will be exploited by the austracist forces as to enter into the Valencian Country. The author analyzes the performance of feudal power facing these revolts and its reply to undermine them. The direct connection between the second Germania and the War of Succession is founded on an anti-feudal feeling that will be repressed in distinct manners according to different moments
Salvador Albiñana: Latin at the University of València during the 18th century (Els estudis clàssics a la Universitat de València durant el segle XVIII) Latin remained as the academic language at every university in Spain until the early 19th century. However, its importance did not derive from its normalized presence among the academic grammar subjects, which also included Greek and Hebrew since the Humanism. We have studied the situation of Latin and Greek professorship at the University of València during the 18th century, as well as the level of the Latin used. Latin professorship were often unoccupied and there were several deputy professors instead. Moreover, most students who attended the lectures did not have a very high level of intelligence. Everything comes to the conclusion that this stage of irregularity and decay of Latin subjects —which had actually begun in the 17th century— were not sorted out by either Jesuits —who took over the university chairs of Latin between 1741 and 1767— or the different programmes and pedagogic tasks done by Gregori Maians
François Sureda: Bandit plays and their reflection of history on the Valencian stage in the 18th century (Les Comèdies de bandolers i el seu reflex de la Història a l’escena valenciana del segle XVIII). Throughout the 18th century, a particular type of drama was the favourite among the Valencian audience: the plays about the adventurous life of bandits and malefactors. The author of this article analyses this phenomenon from a double point of view. First, he studies the influx of audience in the theatre and he emphasizes the most successful ones. Next, he analyses the causes of that success. That’s the reason why he studies the relationship with the real lives of those bandits —Mateu, Vicent Benet, Serrallonga, etc.— and the way they were presented on stage.
M. Victòria Garcia Esteve and Ferranda Mancebo: Library catalogue of the Valencian doctor Joaquim Llombart i Català, Chairman at the University of València (Catàleg de la biblioteca del metge valencià del segle XVIII, Joaquim Llombart i Català, catedràtic de la Universitat de València) This paper offers the complete catalogue of Joaquim Llombart i Català’s personal library (ca. 1757-1825). He was a medicine chairman at the University if València from the late 18th century to the early 19th century. The referred library was donated to the Valencian university in 1828 and followed to be kept in the Faculty of Medicine. There are no data on the donation or inventory of this library, but we have been able to recompose it with the help of the ex libris that Llombart stamped in each of his books, and also with the register book of the library of the Faculty of Medicine. Along with the catalogue —which has its authors organized in alphabetical order— we offer a brief biography of Joaquim Llombart i Català.
Vicent Gil Vicent: Foreign merchants at the Valencian Country in the second half of the 18th century: the 1764 and 1773 registers (Els comerciants estrangers al País Valencià a la segona meitat del segle XVIII: les matrícules de 1764 i 1773) This paper looks on the control exercised by foreigners on the Valencian trade during the 18th century, shown in the «Matrícules» (registers) or «Llistes de comerciants estrangers...» (List of foreign merchants) belonging to 1764-65 and 1773. The newest contribution offered in this documentation is a quantitative approach to the foreign merchant colony in all the Valencian lands during these two dates of maximum commercial growth. At the same time, it confirms the traditional hypothesis of the major control that the French merchants had on maritime traffic and on the Valencian inner market, and it sets the causes of the changes produced in the foreign merchant colony, in its geographical localization and in the wide commercial network that was generated upon its activity. Recensions: Vicent L. Salavert Fabiani, José Manuel Pérez García, Pere Molas Ribalta, Iñaki Lafuente / Cultural Reviews: Agustí Colomines i Companys / Received publications.
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